Indonesia Post-Pandemic Outlook: Rethinking Health and Economics Post-COVID-19


Anthony Paulo Sunjaya (ed)
The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales Sydney
Yoko Brigitte Wang (ed)
South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Adelaide
Riani Sagita (ed)
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
Dwi Sugiharti (ed)
James Cook University


digital transformation, resilience, digital health, telemedicine, e-commerce, digital finance, financial technology, tourism, virtual excursions, resilient societies, food system, human capital, mental health, pandemic burnout, culture, digital capital, community resilience, creative economy, global value chain, global trade, supply chains, economic crises, tax, corporate tax, international tax, green bond, green financing, international trade, health system, health research, research translation, collaborative leadership


COVID-19 has disrupted all aspects of human life. To mitigate the impact of the pandemic, several efforts have been taken, including by Indonesian scholars abroad. This book entitled Indonesia Post-Pandemic Outlook: Rethinking Health and Economics Post-COVID-19 explores opportunities and innovations to push forward to recover from COVID-19, both in health and economics. Comprising 15 chapters, this book is split into three main themes. The first part, Digital Transformation, focuses on how digital transformation has provided new ways of working in health, Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs), financing, and the tourism industry, especially in this post-pandemic era. Second, Building Future Ready Resilient Societies, raises the critical question of how the Indonesian society can be more resilient and future-ready to face a future that changes more rapidly than before, through the lens of food systems, mental health, culture, collaborative leadership, communities, and global supply chains. The last part, Equitable, Sustainable, and Green Development, presents ideas on what it takes to build a more equitable, sustainable, and greener future without sacrificing prosperity. We hope that this book can be a valuable reference for stakeholders, policymakers, as well as society to recover from the pandemic crisis and find better solutions to benefit future generations.



Download data is not yet available.


Abu El Sood, H., Abu Kamer, S. A., Kamel, R., Magdy, H., Osman, F. S., Fahim, M., Mohsen, A., AbdelFatah, M., Hassany, M., Afifi, S., & Eid, A. (2021). The impact of implementing the Egypt pandemic preparedness plan for acute respiratory infections in combating the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, February–July 2020: Viewpoint. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, 7(5), e27412.

App Store. (2021). Exposure notification apps: App Store story.

Bangkok Hospital. (2022). EPi 1: Mor Prom Application And COVID-19 Vaccines In Thailand.

Beschel, R. P., Jr. (2022, March 9). Policy and institutional responses to COVID-19 in the Middle East and North Africa: Egypt. Brookings.

Chen, Y. Y., & Assefa, Y. (2021). The heterogeneity of the COVID-19 pandemic and national responses: An explanatory mixed-methods study. BMC Public Health, 21(1).

Cheng, D. R., Coote, A., & South, M. (2021). A digital approach in the rapid response to COVID-19—Experience of a paediatric institution. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 149, 104407.

Cho, H., Ippolito, D., & Yu, Y.. (2020). Contact tracing mobile apps for COVID-19: privacy considerations and related trade-offs. arXiv: 2003.11511v2

Consultancy Asia. (2018). Frost & Sullivan outlines investment opportunities in Indonesia ICT sector.

Davenport, T. A., Cheng, V. W. S., Iorfino, F., Hamilton, B., Castaldi, E., Burton, A., Scott, E. M., & Hickie, I. B. (2020). Flip the clinic: A digital health approach to youth mental health service delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. JMIR Mental Health, 7(12), e24578.

Deloitte Indonesia (2019). 21st century health care challenges: A connected health approach.

Fagherazzi, G., Goetzinger, C., Rashid, M. A., Aguayo, G. A., & Huiart, L. (2020). Digital health strategies to fight COVID-19 worldwide: Challenges, recommendations, and a call for papers. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(6), e19284.

G20 Presidency of Indonesia. (2022a). G20 DEWG sets world’s digital economy course, minister says.

G20 Presidency of Indonesia. (2022b). Reducing the digital gap for blue and green economy.

Garrett, P. M., Wang, Y., White, J. P., Hsieh, S., Strong, C., Lee, Y. C., Lewandowsky, S., Dennis, S., & Yang, C. T. (2021). Young adults view smartphone tracking technologies for COVID-19 as acceptable: The case of Taiwan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(3), 1332.

Ghannam, A. & Sebae, A. (2021). Healthcare protection policies during the COVID-19 pandemic: Lessons towards the implementation of the new Egyptian universal health insurance law. Social protection in Egypt: Mitigating the socio-economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on vulnerable employment.

Gomes, M., Murray, E., & Raftery, J. (2022). Economic evaluation of digital health interventions: Methodological issues and recommendations for practice. Pharmaco Economics, 40(4), 367–378.

Han, E., Chiou, S. T., McKee, M., & Legido-Quigley, H. (2020). The resilience of Taiwan’s health system to address the COVID-19 pandemic. EClinicalMedicine, 24, 100437.

Hayati, D. N. (2021). Manfaatkan Momentum Presidensi G20, Menkominfo Ajak Pelaku Industri e-Health Kolaborasi.

Health Information For All (HIFA.ORG). (2022). WHO classification of digital health interventions.

IBM. (2019). Expert insights how digital therapy benefits patients, providers, and the health ecosystem (76024976USEN-02).

IQVIA (2017). The growing value of digital health.

Jakarta Globe. (2021). Digital health readiness: Where is Indonesia at?

Jian, S. W., Cheng, H. Y., Huang, X. T., & Liu, D. P. (2020). Contact tracing with digital assistance in Taiwan’s COVID-19 outbreak response. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 101, 348–352.

Jung, J. (2021). South Korea’s my healthway: A "digital highway" of personal health records but where? thebmjopinion. Retrieved September 24, 2021 from

Kim, H. S., Kim, B., Lee, S. G., Jang, S. Y., & Kim, T. H. (2021). COVID-19 Case surge and telemedicine utilization in a tertiary hospital in Korea. Telemedicine and E-Health.

Lai, L., Wittbold, K. A., Dadabhoy, F. Z., Sato, R., Landman, A. B., Schwamm, L. H., He, S., Patel, R., Wei, N., Zuccotti, G., Lennes, I. T., Medina, D., Sequist, T. D., Bomba, G., Keschner, Y. G., & Zhang, H. M. (2020). Digital triage: Novel strategies for population health management in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare, 8(4), 100493.

Lee, J., Park, Y. T., Park, Y. R., & Lee, J. H. (2021). Review of national-level personal health records in advanced countries. Healthcare Informatics Research, 27(2), 102–109.

Lo, W. C., Wang, F. C., Lin, L. Y., Jyan, H. W., Wu, H. C., Huang, Y. L., Parng, I. M., & Chiou, H. Y. (2021). Enhancing data linkage to break the chain of COVID-19 spread: The Taiwan experience. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 23(5), e24294.

Mahendradhata, Y., Andayani, N. L. P. E., Hasri, E. T., Arifi, M. D., Siahaan, R. G. M., Solikha, D. A., & Ali, P. B. (2021). The capacity of the Indonesian healthcare system to respond to COVID-19. Frontiers in Public Health, 9.

Market, V. O. T., Krasniansky, A., Evans, B., Zweig, M., With help from:, Shah, P., Hawks, C., Dell’Aquilo, G., & DeSilva, J. (2022, January 11). 2021 year-end digital health funding: Seismic shifts beneath the surface. Rock Health.

Martínez-Alcalá, C. I., Rosales-Lagarde, A., Pérez-Pérez, Y. M., Lopez-Noguerola, J. S., Bautista-Díaz, M. L., & Agis-Juarez, R. A. (2021). The effects of COVID-19 on the digital literacy of the elderly: Norms for digital inclusion. Frontiers in Education, 6.

McKinsey & Company. (2021). How the medtech industry can capture value from digital health.

Megahed, N. A., & Ghoneim, E. M. (2020). Antivirus-built environment: Lessons learned from Covid-19 pandemic. Sustainable cities and society, 61, 102350.

Mogessie, Y. G., Ntacyabukura, B., Mengesha, D. T., Musa, M. B., Wangari, M. C., Claude, N., Buntongyi, N., & Lucero-Prisno III, D. E. (2021). Digital health and COVID-19: Challenges of use and implementation in sub-Saharan Africa. Pan African Medical Journal, 38.

Mohammed, H. T., Hyseni, L., Bui, V., Gerritsen, B., Fuller, K., Sung, J., & Alarakhia, M. (2021). Exploring the use and challenges of implementing virtual visits during COVID-19 in primary care and lessons for sustained use. PLOS ONE, 16(6), e0253665.

Morchana. (2021). Morchana.

Nakamoto, I., Jiang, M., Zhang, J., Zhuang, W., Guo, Y., Jin, M. H., Huang, Y., & Tang, K. (2020). Evaluation of the design and implementation of a peer-to-peer COVID-19 contact tracing mobile app (COCOA) in Japan. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 8(12), e22098.

OECD. (2022). Testing for COVID-19: A way to lift confinement restrictions.

Pandya, A., & Lodha, P. (2021). Social connectedness, excessive screen time during COVID-19 and mental health: A review of current evidence. Frontiers in Human Dynamics, 3.

Pardede, G., & Hakim, E. F. (2021). Digital Health 2021 Indonesia. Lexology Law Business Research.


Niakan K. S., Bahaadinbeigy, K., Deldar, K., Gholamzadeh, M., Hajesmaeel-Gohari, S., & Ayyoubzadeh, S. M. (2021). Digital health solutions to control the COVID-19 pandemic in countries with high disease prevalence: Literature review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 23(3), e19473.

Nick Fahy and Anna Sagan. (2021). POLICY BRIEF 42: Use of digital health tools in Europe before, during, and after COVID-19. European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, a partnership hosted by WHO.

Reuters. (2020). Indonesia leans on healthtech startups to cope with virus surge.

Rothstein, M. A. (2020). Public health and privacy in the pandemic. American Journal of Public Health, 110(9), 1374–1375.

Satuan Tugas Penanganan COVID-19. (2021). Ini Manfaat Aplikasi PeduliLindungi yang Belum Banyak Diketahui.

Sayeed, U. B., & Hossain, A. (2020). How Japan managed to curb the pandemic early on: Lessons learned from the first eight months of COVID-19. Journal of Global Health, 10(2).

Sehat Negeriku. (2021). Transformasi digital Bidang Kesehatan : Strategi Jangka Panjang Atasi Pandemi COVID-19.

Sehati. (2022).

SGR Law (2019). Digital health and privacy.

Startup Health. (2019). StartUp Health Insights™ Report 2019 Year End.

Sumarsono, S. (2020). Considerations how to improve e-health services in Indonesia (emphasizing on telemedicine services). LinkedIn.

Swayamsiddha, S., Prashant, K., Shaw, D., & Mohanty, C. (2021). The prospective of Artificial Intelligence in COVID-19 Pandemic. Health and Technology, 11(6), 1311–1320.

Telectg. (2022).

Thai Embassy. (2022). “No quarantine” Phuket sandbox. .

Timorria, Lim Fatimah. (2018). Startup Edutech & Healthtech Punya Potensi Jadi unicorn Indonesia Selanjutnya.

U.S. GAO. (2021). COVID-19 exposure notification apps are available. But are they working? Retrieved February 16, 2022 from

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2021). Egypt human development report 2021.

United Nations Volunteers Programme. (2022). Going digital for better health services in Indonesia. (2022)..

Valentino-DeVries, J., Singer, N., & Krolik, A. (2020). A scramble for virus apps that do no harm. The New York Times.


Whitelaw, S., Mamas, M. A., Topol, E., & van Spall, H. G. C. (2020). Applications of digital technology in COVID-19 pandemic planning and response. The Lancet Digital Health, 2(8), e435–e440.

WHO. (2017). Global diffusion of ehealth - making universal health coverage achievable: Report of the third global survey on e-health. World Health Organization.

WHO. (2019). WHO guideline recommendations on digital interventions for health system strengthening.

WHO. (2021). Global strategy on digital health 2020–2025.

WHO. (2021). Use of digital health tools in Europe: Before, during, and after COVID-19. World Health Organization.

WIPRO. (2019). How Pharma is adapting to digital interventions and driving healthcare.

Wira, N. N. (2020). What to know before using PeduliLindungi surveillance app, according to a cybersecurity expert. The Jakarta Post.

Wira, N. N. (2021). Data security concerns after President Jokowi’s vaccine certificate leak. The Jakarta Post.

Yang, F., Heemsbergen, L., & Fordyce, R. (2020). Comparative analysis of China’s Health Code, Australia’s COVID Safe and New Zealand’s COVID Tracer Surveillance Apps: A new corona of public health governmentality? Media International Australia, 178(1), 182–197.

Yonhap S. (2020, May 20). Korea exports wristband trackers for quarantine violators. The Korea Herald.

Ardianto, P. (2021).

Asosiasi Fintech Indonesia (AFTECH). (2020). Annual member survey 2019/2020. Fintech Indonesia.

Bank Indonesia. (2021a). Delivery channel transaction.

Bank Indonesia. (2021b). Payment system statistics.

Batunanggar, S. (2019). Fintech development and regulatory frameworks in Indonesia. Asian Development Bank Institute. Tokyo, Japan.

CNBC. (2020). Mengenal e-money produk receh yang kerap dibutuhkan.

Financial Stability Board. (2017). Financial stability implications from fintech. Supervisory and regulatory issues that merit authorities’ attention. Financial Stability Board.

Financial Services Board. (2019). Fintech and market structure in financial services: Market development and potential financial stability implications. Financial Stability Board.

Huong, Alice Yong Zheng., Puah, Chin.Hong., and Chong, Mei Teing. (2021). Embrace fintech in ASEAN: A perception through fintech adoption index. Research in World Economy, 12(1). Special Issue. Malaysia.

INDEF. (2020). Peran equity crowdfunding terhadap perekonomian nasional (equity crowdfunding’s role on the national economy). Fintech Indonesia.

Khere, P., Ng, S., Ogawa, S., & Sahay, R.(2021). Is digital finance inclusion unlocking growth? IMF Working Paper WP/21/167/. Monetary and Capital Market Department.

Khiewngamdee, C., & Yan, H. (2019). The role of fintech e-payment on APEC economic development. Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1342.

Medici. (2021). Indonesia fintech report 2021.

Narayan, S.W. (2019). Does fintech matter for Indonesia’s economic growth? Bulletin of Monetary Economics and Banking, 22(4), 437-456.

Otoritas Jasa Keuangan. (2018). POJK No. 37/2018 on Equity Crowdfunding.

Otoritas Jasa Keuangan. (2020a). POJK No. 57/2020 on Securities Crowdfunding.

Otoritas Jasa Keuangan. (2021a). OJK ECF statistics 2021.

Otoritas Jasa Keuangan. (2020b). Perkembangan fintech lending. Direktorat Pengaturan, Perizinan, dan Pengawasan Fintech. Jakarta, Indonesia.

Otoritas Jasa Keuangan. (2020c). Digital finance innovation road map and action plan 2020–2024.

Otoritas Jasa Keuangan. (2021b). Fintech lending statistic. Retrieve from

Pusparisa, Y. (July 1, 2021). Daftar negara pengguna smartphone terbanyak (list of countries with the most smartphone users). Otoritas jasa keuangan.

Central Bureau of Statistics. (2020). Telecommunication statistic in Indonesia. BPS-Statistic Indonesia.

Sugandi, E. A. (2021). The COVID-19 pandemic and Indonesia’s fintech markets. Asian Development Bank Institute. Tokyo, Japan.

The World Bank. (2021). Harnessing digital technologies for inclusion in Indonesia: Beyond unicorn. World Bank Indonesia Flagship Report.

Yoshino, N., & Kaji, S. (2020). The macroeconomic effect on fintech. Public Policy Review, 16(4).

Zhou, G., Zu, J., & Luo, S. (2022). The impact of fintech innovation on green growth in China: Mediating effect of green finance. Ecological Economics, 193.

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2022, March 2). Jumlah kunjungan wisatawan mancanegara per bulan ke Indonesia menurut pintu masuk, 2017–sekarang,

Fauzan, R (2020, August 7). Pandemi berdampak cukup besar bagi sektor pariwisata. berdampak-cukup-besar-bagi-sektor-pariwisata-

Indradi, G. (2018, Maret 11). K-Pop: Cara kreatif Korea Selatan membangun industri kreatif.

Kemenparekraf. (2021, August 18). Tren pariwisata Indonesia di tengah pandemi. https/

Kemenparekraf (2021, November 6). Penguatan ekosistem digital dalam sektor ekonomi kreatif di Indonesia.

Kemenparekraf. (2020, December 9). Subsektor ekonomi kreatif.

Kominfo (2021, March 11). Ajak pelaku ekonomi kreatif tingkatkan inovasi di tengah pandemi. Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika Republik Indonesia.

Mawardi, S. (2020, December 30). Bertahan di tengah pandemi COVID-19 ditinjau dari sudut ekonomi. SMERU Research Institute.

Messerlin, P. A., & Shin, W. (2017). The Success of K-pop. Asian Journal of Social Science, 45(4–5), 409–439.

Nur, H. (2021). Penerapan smart tourism dalam pengelolaan pariwisata di era pandemi COVID-19 Kabupaten Bantaeng. Program Studi Ilmu Pemerintahan Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar.

Permana, M. (2021, July 22). Ekonomi kreatif, gelombang baru perekonomian. GreatDay HR Blog.

Septiyan, D. (2020). Perubahan budaya musik di tengah pandemi COVID-19. Musikolastika: Jurnal Pertunjukan dan Pendidikan Musik, 2(1), 31–38.

Shaid, N. J. (2022, January 8). Pertumbuhan ekonomi: Pengertian, ciri, dan faktor yang mempengaruhinya.

Kelly, N. (2018, January 19) The South Korean government actually has a department dedicated to K-pop.

Universitas Terbuka (2021, Augsust 2) Pariwisata dan Industri Kreatif: Peluang dan Tantangan pada Masa dan Pasca Covid-19.

Toffler, A. (1995). Creating a New Civilization: The Politics of the Third Wave (1st ed.). Turner Pub.

Ahmad, Tauhid. (2021). Indonesia value chain policies: Learning from China’s experience. ECDIC Project Paper No. 9.

Amiti, M., & Cameron, L. (2012). Trade liberalization and the wage skill premium: Evidence from Indonesia. Journal of International Economics, 87(2), 277–287.

Amiti, M., & Konings, J. (2007). Trade liberalization, intermediate inputs, and productivity: Evidence from Indonesia. The American Economic Review, 97(5), 1611–1638.

Antràs, P. (2020). Conceptual aspects of global value chains. The World Bank Economic Review, 34(3), 551–574.

Antras, P., & Chor, D. (2019). On the measurement of upstreamness and downstreamness in global value chains. In L. Y. Ing & M. Yu (Eds.), World trade evolution: growth, productivity, and employment. Routledge.

Arriola, C., Guilloux-Nefussi, S., Koh, S.-H., Kowalski, P., Rusticelli, E., & Tongeren, F. v. (2020). Efficiency and risks in global value chains in the context of COVID-19. OECD Economics Department Working Papers. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Asian Development Bank. (2020). Global shortage of personal protective equipment amid COVID-19: supply chains, bottlenecks, and policy implications (ADB Briefs, Issue.

Asian Development Bank and Islamic Development Bank (2019). The evolution of Indonesia's participation in Global Value Chains. Manila, Asian Development Bank.

Badan Pusat Statistik. (n.d.). [Seri 2010] Laju Pertumbuhan PDB Seri 2010 (Persen), 2020.

Bio Farma. (2021). Bio Farma sudah produksi 90,1 juta dosis vaksin COVID-19

Bonadio, B., Huo, Z., Levchenko, A. A., & Pandalai-Nayar, N. (2021). Global supply chains in the pandemic. Journal of International Economics, 133, 103534.

Bown, C. P., & Bollyky, T. J. (2021). How COVID-19 vaccine supply chains emerged in the midst of a pandemic. PIIE Working Paper, 21–12.

Chor, D., Manova, K., & Yu, Z. (2021). Growing like China: Firm performance and global production line position. Journal of International Economics, 130, 103445.

Evenett, S. J. (2020). Flawed prescription: export curbs on medical goods won't tackle shortages. In R. E. Baldwin & S. J. Evenett (Eds.), COVID-19 and trade policy: Why turning inward won't work, 49–61. CEPR Press.

Gumelar, G. (2020, 4 April 2020). Indonesia to have enough PPE as manufacturers agree to produce 17 million units: Govt. The Jakarta Post.

Gupta, K. (2022). The heterogeneous impact of tariff and NTM on total factor productivity of Indonesian firms. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 1–29.

Gupta, K., & Mardjono, E. (2021). Indonesia emas berkelanjutan 2045: kumpulan pemikiran pelajar indonesia sedunia seri 01 ekonomi. LIPI Press.

Hill, H., & Pane, D. (2018). Indonesia and the global economy: missed opportunities? In A. Patunru, M. Pangestu, & M. C. Basri (Eds.), Indonesia in the new world: Globalisation, nationalism and sovereignty. ISEAS Publishing.

Hirshhorn, R. (2015). Getting value from global value chains: A Canadian perspective. Transnational Corporations Review, 7(1), 1–21.

Ing, L. Y., Yu, M., & Zhang, R. (2019). The evolution of export quality: China and Indonesia. In L. Y. Ing & M. Yu (Eds.), World Trade Evolution: Growth, Productivity, and Employment, 261–302. Routledge.

Kilinc, F. S. (2015). A review of isolation gowns in healthcare: fabric and gown properties. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, 10(3), 180–190.

Kim, K. (2016). Indonesia juggles globalism and nationalism. The Jakarta Post.

Kis-Katos, K., Pieters, J., & Sparrow, R. (2018). Globalization and social change: gender-specific effects of trade liberalization in Indonesia. IMF Economic Review, 66(4), 763–793.

Kis-Katos, K., & Sparrow, R. (2015). Poverty, labor markets and trade liberalization in Indonesia. Journal of Development Economics, 117, 94–106.

Kowalski, P., Gonzalez, J. L., Ragoussis, A., & Ugarte, C. (2015). Participation of developing countries in global value chains.

Kummritz, V., Taglioni, D., & Winkler, D. E. (2017). Economic upgrading through global value chain participation: which policies increase the value added gains? World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 8007.

Lawrence, R. Z. (2020). Trade surplus or deficit? Neither matters for changes in manufacturing employment shares. PIIE Working Paper, 20–15.

Munadi, E. (2019). Indonesian non-tariff measures: updates and insights. In H.T.T. Doan & S. Rosenow (Eds.), Non-tariff measures in ASEAN: an update. The Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA).

Munadi, E. (2016). Indonesia's non-tariff measures: an overview. The Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).

Negara, S. D. (2015). Rising economic nationalism in Indonesia: Will this time be different? ISEAS Perspective, 59. ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2021). Using trade to fight COVID-19: Manufacturing and distributing vaccines.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (n.d.). Trade in value added.

Patunru, A., & Rahardja, S. (2015). Trade protectionism in indonesia: bad times and bad policy.

Patunru, A. (2018). Rising economic nationalism in Indonesia. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies, 35(3), 335–354.

Pettis, M. (2022). China's record trade gap a symptom of struggle to rebalance its economy.

RISE Indonesia. (2017). Case study coffee sector in Indonesia the journey.

Studwell, J. (2013). How Asia works: success and failure in the world's most dynamic region. Grove Press.

Surianta, A. and A. Patunru (2021). "Repositioning Indonesia in the Post-COVID-19 Global Value Chains." Southeast Asian Affairs 2021: 122-138.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). (2008). Investment policy review Vietnam. United Nations.

Vadila, Y., & Resosudarmo, B. P. (2020). Tariff reform and income inequality in Indonesia. Regional science policy & practice, 12(3), 455–475.

World Bank. (2020). World development report 2020: Trading for development in the age of global value chains. World Bank.

World Trade Organization. (2021). World trade report 2021: economic resilience and trade.

Abdoellah, S. & Hartatri, D. F. S. (2021, March). Performance analysis and commodity outlook coffee. Radar: Analisis dan Opini Perkebunan. 2(2), 1-7.

Adewale, A. R. (2017). Import substitution industrialization and economic growth – Evidence from the group of BRICS countries. Future Business Journal, 3(2), 138–158.

Antara (2020). 4 kebijakan stimulus lancarkan ekspor impor barang (4 stimulus policies to enhance export and import of goods).

Bontempi, E. & Coccia, M. (2021). International trade as critical parameter of COVID-19 spread that outclasses demographic, economic, environmental, and pollution factors. Environmental Research, 201, 111514.


Bottasso, A., Conti, M., de Sa Porto, P. C., Ferrari, C. & Tei, A. (2018). Port infrastructures and trade: Empirical evidence from Brazil. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 107, 126–139.

Brando, C. A. (2016). Winners and losers in the allocation of credit during the era of import-substitution industrialization in Colombia, 1940–1967. Ensayos sobre Política Económica, 34(79), 21–39.

Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS). (2021). Press release December 15, 2021.

Chu, C. Y., Park, K., & Kremer, G. E. (2020). A global supply chain risk management framework: An application of text-mining to identify region-specific supply chain risks. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 45, 101053–.

Fan, X., & Liu, H. (2020). Global supply chain shifting: A macro sense of production relocation based on multi-regional input-output table. Economic Modelling.

Felix, D. (1989). Import substitution and late industrialization: Latin America and Asia compared. World Development, 17(9), 1455–1469.

Francois, J. & Manchin, M. (2013). Institutions, infrastructure, and trade. World Development, 46(), 165–175.

Hayakawa, K. & Mukunoki, H. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on international trade: Evidence from the first shock. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 60, 101135.

He, Q., Liu, J., Xue, C., & Zhou, S. (2019). Bureaucratic integration and synchronization of regional economic growth: Evidence from China. China Economic Review, 101310.

Ing, L. Y. & Vadila, Y. (2022). COVID-19: Impacts on Indonesia’s trade. ERIA Discussion Paper Series, No. 415.

International Trade Administration. (2021). Indonesia – trade agreements.

Irwin, D. A. (2021). The rise and fall of import substitution. World Development, 139, 105306.

Jiya, A. N., Sama, M. C., & Ouedraogo, I. (2020). Infrastructure, trade openness and economic transformation in common market for Eastern and Southern Africa member countries. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 2(1), 100072–. https;//

Kustiari. (2017). Coffee supply chain management. Center for Socio-Economic Agriculture. Bogor.

Lee, H. L., & Shen, Z. J. (2020). Supply chain and logistics innovations with the belt and road initiative. Journal of Management Science and Engineering, S2096232020300251–.

Li, C. & Lin, X. (2021). COVID-19 and trade: Simulated asymmetric loss. Journal of Asian Economics, 75, 101327.

Lu, S., Wang, W., Cheng, Y., Yang, C. Jiao, Y., Xu, M., Bai, Y., Yang, J., Song, H., Wang, L., Wang, J., Rong, B., & Xu, J. (2021). Food-trade-associated COVID-19 outbreak from a contaminated wholesale food supermarket in Beijing. Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity, 3(1), 58–65.

Mandal, B. & Marjit, S. (2013). Trade reform, intermediation, and corruption. Economic Modelling, 33, 741–746.

Martin, X. S. (2016). It matters how competitive your country is. here are three reasons why. World Economic Forum. Retrieved from

Mazumdar, D. (1991). Import-substituting industrialization and protection of the small-scale: The Indian experience in the textile industry. World Development, 19(9), 1197–1213.

Ministry of Agriculture. (2020). Buku outlook komoditas perkebunan kopi 2020. Jakarta: Center of Data and Information System.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Indonesia. (2021). The Government of the Republic of Indonesia will be holding virtual trade expo Indonesia – Digital Edition (TEI-DE) 2021. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. (2021, September 2).

Ministry of Trade. (2021). Laporan triwulan II Kementerian Perdagangan tahun 2021. Jakarta.

Nchanji, E. B. & Lutomia, C. K. (2021). COVID-19 challenges to sustainable food production and consumption: Future lessons for food systems in eastern and southern Africa from a gender lens. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 27, 2208–2220.

Ng, A. K. Y., Padilha, F., & Pallis, A. A. (2013). Institutions, bureaucratic, and logistical roles of dry ports: The Brazilian experiences. Journal of Transport Geography, 27, 46–55.

OECD (2022). International trade during the COVID-19 pandemic: Big shifts and uncertainty.

Patoni, A. S., Tanaya, I. G. L. P., Zaini, A., & Buastra, I. K. (2019). Impacts of decreasing of import tariff and value added tax on competitiveness and efficiency of agribusiness of coffee robusta between dry and wet processing in Lombok Island of West Nusa Tenggara Province. Agrimansion Journal, 20(1).

Shepherd, B. (2017). Infrastructure, trade facilitation, and network connectivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of African Trade, S2214851517300038–.

Uly, Y. A. (2020). 8 Strategi Mendag genjot ekspor di tengah pandemi (8 strategic actions of Ministry of Trade to enhance export during pandemic).

Waterbury, J. (1999). The long gestation and brief triumph of import-substituting industrialization. World Development, 27(2), 323–341.

Weersink, A., Massow, M., Bannon, N., Ifft, J., Maples, J., McEwan, K., McKendree, M. G. S., Nicholson, C., Novakovic, A., Rangarajan, A., Richards, T., Rikard, B., Rude, J., Schipanski, M., Schnitkey, G., Schulz, L., Schuurman, D.,Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K., … Wood, K. (2021). COVID-19 and the agri-food system in the United States and Canada. Agricultural Systems, 188, 103039.

World Trade Organization. (2020, December). Trade policy review: Indonesia. World Trade Organization.

Xu, L., Shi, J., Chen, J., & Li, L. (2021). Estimating the effect of COVID-19 epidemic on shipping trade: An empirical analysis using panel data. Marine Policy, 133, 104768.

Zhang, Y., et al. (2021). Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on fish trade and the coping strategies: An initial assessment from China’s perspective. Marine Policy, 133, 104748. https;//

Zhou, Y., Chen, S. & Chen, M. (2019). Global value chain, regional trade networks, and sino-eu fta. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. S0954349X18304090–

Adshead, F., Al-Shahi Salman, R., Aumonier, S., Collins, M., Hood, K., McNamara, C., Moore, K., Smith, R., Sydes, M. R., & Williamson, P. R. (2021). A strategy to reduce the carbon footprint of clinical trials. The Lancet, 398(10297), 281–282.

Attamimi, A. N. R., Nirmala, I., & Putri, D. A. V.. (2019). Higher education statistics 2019. Pusat Data dan Informasi Ristekdikti.

Bartram T., Dowling P.J., (2013). An international perspective on human resource management and performance in the health care sector: Toward a research agenda. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(16), 3031–3037.

Boustani, M. A., Van Der Marck, M. A., Adams, N., Azar, J. M., Holden, R. J., Vollmar, H. C., Wang, S., Williams, C., Alder, C., Suarez, S., Khan, B., Zarzaur, B., Fowler, N. R., Overley, A., Solid, C. A., & Gatmaitan, A. (2019). Developing the agile implementation playbook for integrating evidence-based health care services into clinical practice. Academic Medicine, 94(4), 556–561.

BRIN. (2021). Rencana Strategis BRIN. Retrieved December 31, 2021, from

BRIN. (2022). Prioritas Riset Nasional. Retrieved February 22, 2022 from

CCHPI. (2019). Final report: Exploring collaborative research models in Indonesia.

Christopherson, E. G., Howell, E. L., Scheufele, D. A., Viswanath, K., & West, N. P. (2021). How science philanthropy can build equity. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 19(4), 48–55.

CSIC. (2019). Rangking web of research centers. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Retrieved December 31, 2021 from

Deguchi, A., Hirai, C., Matsuoka, H., Nakano, T., Oshima, K., Tai, M., & Tani, S. (2020). What is Society 5.0? In Society 5.0: A People-centric super-smart society (pp. 1–23). Springer Singapore.

Dimyati, M., Putera, P. B., Laksani, C. S., Zulhamdani, M., Handoyo, S., Rianto, Y., & Handoko, L. T. (2022). Research strength index to identify the performance of research universities: The case of Indonesia. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management (ahead-of-print).

El-Jardali, F., Bou-Karroum, L., & Fadlallah, R. (2020). Amplifying the role of knowledge translation platforms in the COVID-19 pandemic response. Health Research Policy and Systems, 18(1), 58.

Flatto, O. T. (2015). The case of philanthropy: Bringing scientists and philanthropic donors together, for good. Disease Models & Mechanisms, 8(9), 1011–1012.

Gaillard, J. (2008). The characteristics of r&d in developing countries.

Hidayat T., & Darmawati W. (2019). Reconstruction of research management in Indonesia. Journal of Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy, 5(1), 6.

Hosseinpoor, A. R., Nambiar, D., & Schlotheuber, A. (2018). Monitoring health inequality in Indonesia. In Global health Action (Vol. 11, pp. 3–6). Taylor & Francis, Ltd.

Huot, S., Ho, H., Ko, A., Lam, S., Tactay, P., MacLachlan, J., & Raanaas, R. K. (2019). Identifying barriers to healthcare delivery and access in the Circumpolar North: Important insights for health professionals. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 78(1), 1571385–1571385.

Ibrahim, M. (2020). Sustainable research and innovation ecosystem.

Jamison, D. T., Breman, J. G., Measham, A. R., Alleyne, S. G., Claeson, M., Evans, D. B., Jha, P., Mills, A., & Musgrove, P. (2006). Pillars of the health system. In D. T. Jamison,D. T., Breman, J. G., Measham, A. R., Alleyne, S. G., Claeson, M., Evans, D. B., Jha, P., Mills, A., & Musgrove P. (Eds.), Priorities in health. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.

Januraga, P. P., & Harjana, N. P. A. (2020). Improving public access to COVID-19 pandemic data in Indonesia for better public health response. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 825–825.

Kemdikbud. (2021). Kedaireka. Retrieved December 31, 2021 from

Kemenkes. (2019). Analisis kebijakan peran filantropi dalam pembangunan kesehatan. Pusat Analisis Determinan Kesehatan. Retrieved from

Kemenkes. (2020a). All record TC-19. Retrieved December 30, 2021 from

Kemenkes. (2020b). Penyajian laporan harian COVID-19 melalui sistem online pelaporan harian COVID-19 hingga 20 September 2020 pukul 14.00 WIB.

Kemenkes. (2020c). Sistem online pelaporan harian COVID 19 (SILAPHAR COVID-19). Retrieved December 30, 2021 from

Kemenkes. (2021). Laboratorium Manajemen Data. Retrieved December 30, 2021 from

Kemenkes. (2022). Siranap. Retrieved February 8, 2022 from

Kemenkeu. (2019). Pemerintah gandeng swasta dan pemda optimalkan dana penelitian. Kementerian Keuangan Republik Indonesia. Retrieved December 31, 2021 from

Koller, T. S., Saint, V., Floranita, R., Koemara Sakti, G. M., Pambudi, I., Hermawan, L., Briot, B., Frenz, P., Solar, O., Campos, P., Villar, E., & Magar, V. (2018). Applying the Innov8 approach for reviewing national health programmes to leave no one behind: Lessons learnt from Indonesia. In Global health action (Vol. 11). Taylor & Francis, Ltd.

Kurniawan T. (2017). Kajian diagnostik, mengatasi hambatan penelitian di universitas: Studi kasus Universitas Indonesia. Center for Study of Governance and Administrative Reform, University of Indonesia.

Macintyre, S. (2003). Evidence based policy making. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 326(7379), 5–6.

Macintyre, S., & Petticrew, M. (2000). Good intentions and received wisdom are not enough. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 54(11), 802–803.

Mahendradhata, Y., Andayani, N. L. P. E., & Marthias, T. (2021). COVID-19 health system response monitor: Indonesia. New Delhi: World Health Organization Regional Office for South East Asia.

Mathur, M. R., Gurung, A., Selvaraj, S., & Reddy, K. S. (2021). Health policy and systems research: An inconsistent priority in South East Asia. In Public health research and practice (Vol. 31). Sax Institute.

Mitton, C. P. (2004). Evidence-based priority-setting: What do the decision-makers think? Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 9(3), 146–152.

MRC. (2021). About MRC. Retrieved December 31, 2021 from

Murray, F. (2013). Evaluating the role of science philanthropy in American research universities. Innovation Policy and the Economy, 13, 23–60.

NHMRC. (2021). About Us. Retrieved December 31, 2021 from

NIH. (2021). About NIH. Retrieved December 31, 2021 from

Noor, F. (2020). Indonesia’s problematic response to COVID-19. Cseas Newsletter.

Onwujekwe, O., Etiaba, E., Mbachu, C., Arize, I., Nwankwor, C., Ezenwaka, U., Okeke, C., Ezumah, N., & Uzochukwu, B. (2020). Does improving the skills of researchers and decision-makers in health policy and systems research lead to enhanced evidence-based decision-making in Nigeria?—A short term evaluation. PLOS ONE, 15(9), e0238365.

Orton, L., Lloyd-Williams, F., Taylor-Robinson, D., O'Flaherty, M., & Capewell, S. (2011). The use of research evidence in public health decision making processes: Systematic review. PLOS ONE (Vol. 6).

Pang, T., Sadana, R., Hanney, S., Bhutta, Z. A., Hyder, A. A., & Simon, J. (2003). Knowledge for better health: A conceptual framework and foundation for health research systems. Bull World Health Organ, 81(11), 815–820.

Ritter, A. (2009). How do drug policy makers access research evidence? International Journal of Drug Policy, 20(1), 70–75.

Robinson, J. C. (2021). Funding of pharmaceutical innovation during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA, 325(9), 825–826.

Seidler S., Primak, R. B., Goswani, V. R., Khaling, S., Devi, M. S., Corlett, R. T., Knott, C. D., Kane, E. E., Susanto, T. W., Otali, E, Roth, T. J., Phillips, O.L., Baker, T. R., Ewango, C., Coronado, E. H., Levesley, A., Lewis, S. L., Marimon, B. S, Qie, L, ... Wrangham, R. 2021). Confronting ethical challenges in long-term research programs in the tropics. Biological Conservation, 225, 108933.

Sidjabat, F., & Arthameivia, R. (2021). Evaluasi penyelenggaraan surveilans COVID-19 di UPTD Puskesmas Pare Kabupaten Kediri. JHECDs: Journal of Health Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases, 7(1), 1–9.

Suradijono S. H., Probandari A., Syarifudin D., Panggabean H., & Kurniawan T. (2017). Diagnostic studies, overcoming research barriers at universities: Case studies of four universities in Indonesia.

Syed, S. T., Gerber, B. S., & Sharp, L. K. (2013). Traveling towards disease: Transportation barriers to health care access. Journal of Community Health, 38(5), 976–993.

Towfighi, A., Orechwa, A. Z., Aragón, T. J., Atkins, M., Brown, A. F., Brown, J., Carrasquillo, O., Carson, S., Fleisher, P., Gustafson, E., Herman, D. K., Inkelas, M., Liu, W., Meeker, D., Mehta, T., Miller, D. C., Paul-Brutus, R., Potter, M. B., Ritner, S. S., . . . Yee, H. F., Jr. (2020). Bridging the gap between research, policy, and practice: Lessons learned from academic-public partnerships in the CTSA network. Journal of clinical and translational science, 4(3), 201–208.

Translational Research Institute. (2022). What is translational research? Retrieved January 2, 2022 from

UNESCO Institute of Statistics. (2022). Data for the sustainable development goals. Retrieved March 9, 2022 from

Viergever, R. F. (2013). The mismatch between the health research and development (R&D) that is needed and the R&D that is undertaken: An overview of the problem, the causes, and solutions. Global Health Action, 6, 22450.

Wensing, M., & Grol, R. (2019). Knowledge translation in health: How implementation science could contribute more. BMC Medicine, 17(1), 88.

WHO. (2017). State of health inequality: Indonesia.

WHO. (2021). Second round of the national pulse survey on continuity of essential health services during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Yunus, F., & Andarini, S. (2020). Letter from Indonesia. Respirology, 25(12), 1328–1329.

Zeng, D., Cao, Z., & Neill, D. B. (2021). Artificial intelligence–enabled public health surveillance—from local detection to global epidemic monitoring and control. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 437–453.



November 30, 2022

Details about the available publication format: Download PDF

Download PDF

ISBN-13 (15)