Natural Vegetation and Ethnobotany of Bali


Kuswata Kartawinata
Field Museum of Natural History
Ministry of Environment and Forestry
Ary Prihardhyanto Keim
National Research and Innovation Agency
Wawan Sujarwo
National Research and Innovation Agency


Ecology, Ethnobotany, Bali, Vegetation, Research of Plants


Bali Island has a vast extent of vegetation, and the Balinese have good use of this in cultural, religious, and daily access aspects. This book uncovers the study of vegetation in Bali, extending from the seaside to the mountains. Moreover, in the ethnobotanical aspect, this book presents the result of a study on how Balinese people utilize the biodiversity bestowed on them. The first part of this book will present the research on Bali's vegetation status. After we comprehend the diversity of Bali's natural vegetation, the second part of this book shows a comprehensive directory about the use of plants among Balinese, including which part of the plants is used. We hope that this book will be a contribution to the knowledge of Bali biodiversity’s status and thus become a reference for Bali’s native vegetation. Furthermore, we hope that book will be a data source on Balinese local wisdom of biodiversity utilization.


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Author Biographies

Kuswata Kartawinata, Field Museum of Natural History

Kuswata Kartawinata is currently a Research Associate at the Integrative Research Center, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, USA, primarily working on tropical forest ecology and taxonomy of Indonesian plants (1992–present). He was Director of the Herbarium Bogoriense, Lembaga Biologi Nasional (National Institue of Biology), Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) in Bogor (1978–1984). He joined Herbarium Bogoriense in 1959 and has experienced more than 50 years studying plant ecology and taxonomy. He also held several positions, including Tropical Forest Biology Program Manager at the SEAMEO-BIOTROP (Regional Center for Tropical Biology) in Bogor (1972–1975); Program Specialist in Ecological Sciences at UNESCO-ROSTSEA (Regional Office for Science and Technology for Southeast Asia) in Jakarta to manage the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program, including conservation of biodiversity for Southeast Asia and the Pacific (1984–1992); Senior Program Officer at the John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation in Chicago, USA, to manage the biodiversity conservation program for Asia and the Pacific (1992–1998); Director of Malinau Research Forest, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) in Bogor, to manage the program on Forest, Science and Sustainability in East Kalimantan (1998–2001). He obtained his Ph.D. in Plant Sciences from the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA in 1971. E-mail:

Roemantyo, Ministry of Environment and Forestry

Roemantyo is currently a consultant at the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF), working on aspects of vegetation and biodiversity in the ecoregion development program. He was instrumental on the production of the book entitled Deskripsi Peta Ekoregion Pulau/Kepulauan (Description of the Map of the Islands/Archipelago Ecoregion) published by the Ministry of Environment in 2013. He was also a member of the scientific team in developing concepts on ecosystem services assessment program in MoEF. He was instrumental in assisting MoEF and several Environmental Division of Local Governments to establish local biodiversity gardens basing on local concepts of ecological reselince. He previously worked as a senior scientist at the Bogor Botanical Garden then at the Herbarium Bogoriense, Research Center for Biology for over 30 years. He is a graduate of the Gadjah Mada University. E-mail:

Ary Prihardhyanto Keim, National Research and Innovation Agency

Ary Prihardhyanto Keim is a senior botanist in the the National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN). He has worked in the agency, previously known as the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), for more than 25 years and has a strong interest in the Pandanaceae family. In 2019, he worked as a Special Staff for the Secretary Minister for Coordinating Ministry for Maritime Affairs focusing on the Ethnobiology of Indonesian Spices and the Indonesian Maritime Spice Route. He obtained his Ph.D. in plant systematics from University of Reading, UK. E-mail:

Wawan Sujarwo, National Research and Innovation Agency

Wawan Sujarwo is an ethnobotanist and senior scientist (peneliti ahli utama) at the National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN). He is also an Executive Director of the Ethnobiological Society of Indonesia (PMEI), and editor-in-chief Journal of Tropical Ethnobiology. His primary area of research is on the relationship between plants and people, especially in traditional Balinese communities. He has widely documented Balinese ethnobotanical knowledge in many renowned international journals. He previously held several positions, including Director of Cibodas Botanical Garden, and Head of Scientific Information and Services at Bali Botanical Gardens. He obtained his B.Sc. and M.Sc. in forestry from Gadjah Mada University, and received a Ph.D. in biodiversity and ecosystem analysis from Università degli studi di Roma Tre, Italy. E-mail:


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August 16, 2022



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