Scientific diving has been going on for decades in Indonesia. One of the scientific diving activities is monitoring coral reef ecosystems, better known as the coral reef condition assessment methodology. However, the vastness of Indonesia’s waters is challenging to monitor coral reefs together. Therefore, one coral reef monitoring strategy is creating nodes or regional representation in various regions in Indonesia. Furthermore, strengthening the capacity of human resources through various basic training activities and advanced training. After obtaining a license, this training begins with diving training, followed by coral reef monitoring materials. The fields taught are coral reefs, coral fish, and another benthic biota
Rikoh Manogar Siringoringo, S.T., M.Si. He is a researcher in the field of coral reef ecology at the Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency. He completed his master’s degree at the Bogor Agricultural Institute in 2009 and joined the Marine Ecosystem Health Research Group until now. In 2014, he became a Two Star-CMAS diving instructor. Then, in 2016, he attended ESD (European Scientific Diving) training and certification in Germany and Sweden. The author has been involved in COREMAP-CTI activities since 2005 and has been the Reef Health Monitoring activities coordinator in the ADB (Western Indonesia) region from 2015 to 2017. From 2005 to 2021, the author was active in coral reef monitoring research activities in the COREMAP-CTI area. In 2020, the author coordinated the ICRG (Indonesian Coral Reef Garden) location determination survey activities in Nusa Dua Bali. The author can be reached by email:
Ni Wayan Purnama Sari, S.Si, M.Si. She is one of the coral reef ecology researchers at the Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency. She completed his bachelor’s and master’s education at Airlangga University Surabaya in 2004 and 2012. She started diving activities in 2009 and reached the rescue diver level in 2016. The author also participated in the Scientific Diving Training Program held by LIPI and ZMT Bremen in Bali in the same year. The author has been involved in COREMAP-CTI activities since 2014 and has coordinated Reef Health Monitoring activities several times from 2016 to 2021. The author is also one of the trainers and competency assessors for the Competency Certification of Coral Reef and Related Ecosystem Condition Assessors at the BRIN Pusbangkam and BRIN Professional Certification Institution. In addition, the author is also active in CITES activities for the field of ornamental corals and also acts as an auditor for ornamental coral breeding in Indonesia. The author can be reached by email: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
Dr. Giyanto, S.Si., M.Sc. He is one of the researchers at the Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency. He completed his doctoral program at the Marine Technology Study Program, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), in 2010. His involvement in coral reef research activities made him do much diving in many Indonesian waters, ranging from Aceh to Papua. The author began actively participating in the health monitoring activities of COREMAP coral reefs after completing his master’s program education at Vrije Universiteit Brussels in late 2000. The author can be reached by email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Muhammad Abrar, S.Si, M.Si. He is a researcher at the Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency. He completed his master’s program at the Marine Science Study Program, Bogor Agricultural University, in 2011. Currently, he is a doctoral candidate in the Marine Science Study Program of IPB University. He has been a member of the RCO-BRIN Coral Reef Ecosystem Health Research Group until now. The author has scientific diving expertise at the Four Star (A4-Dive Master) POSSI-CMAS diving level. The author coordinates several underwater research activities, including the monitoring program for the condition of Indonesia’s coral reefs, COREMAP-CTI (period 1997-2021), and coral reef bioecology research (period 2000 to present). In addition, the author is also the Head of the SKKNI Drafting Team for the Assessment of Coral Reef Conditions and the Secretary of the SKKNI Scientific Diving Drafting Team in the Field of Marine Biology. In the field of authorship, he has written books and training modules on scientific diving in marine biology. The author can be reached by email: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org
Kunto Wibowo, S.Si., M.Fish.Sc., Ph.D. He is a researcher in the field of iktiology at the Center for Biosystematics and Evolution Research, BRIN. He completed his doctoral program at The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University, Japan. He gained knowledge and expertise in the field of diving from his participation in the Scientific Diving Training Program in 2014 held by LIPI and ZMT Bremen, Germany, in Bali. In addition, the author is also a certificate holder of A3-Three Star Scuba Diver CMAS. The author actively conducts dives to uncover fish diversity and find out the status of coral fish conditions in assessing coral reef ecosystem health in Indonesia. The author can be reached by email:
Dr. Eng. Puji Rahmadi. He is a researcher in ecological engineering and ecosystem valuation at the Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency. He completed his undergraduate education in 2005 at the Marine Science Study Program, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Diponegoro University. Later, he obtained a master’s degree in 2010 and a doctorate in 2013 at PKNU, South Korea. The author has had a career in marine and fisheries for over ten years. Prior to joining LIPI in 2018, the author had a career in educational institutions and private companies, including as a lecturer in the Ocean Engineering Education Study Program, Indonesia University of Education (UPI); teaching staff at the Fisheries Study Program, Djuanda University; R&D Manager at PT Charoen Phokpan; and MSC Technical Reviewer at PT PCU Indonesia. Currently, the author serves as Chair of the Coastal Ecological Systems Research Group at the Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency. The author can be reached by email: email@example.com
Oksto Ridho Sianturi, S. Kel. He is one of the researchers at the Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency, in the field of marine plankton. He underwent his undergraduate education at the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Diponegoro University, in the Oceanography Study Program in 2013. The author began to pursue diving activities when he joined the diving club UKSA-387 UNDIP. The author is involved in several expeditionary and research diving activities and attending scientific diving training at PMBC, Phuket, Thailand. The author has been a researcher at LIPI since 2015 and studying marine biology at the University of Bremen. The author can be reached by email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Irfan Kampono, S.T., M.M.Tr. He is an engineer at the Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency. Undergraduate education is obtained from the Mechanical Engineering Study Program, Darussalam University, Ambon. Then, the master’s program was obtained from the Marine Transportation Management Study Program at the Trisakti Institute of Transportation and Logistics (ITL) in 2017. The author has been involved in phase III of the Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Program (COREMAP-CTI) project activities. From 2018-2022, the author was responsible as the Head of the COREMAP-CTI Environmental Social and Safeguard Team. The author is directly involved in monitoring the activities of Safeguarding The Health of Coral Reefs and Related Ecosystems, as well as the rehabilitation of coral parks, mangroves, and seagrass beds. The author can be contacted by email: email@example.com
Dr. Ir. Munasik, M.Sc. He completed his undergraduate education at the Marine Science Study Program, Diponegoro University, in 1992. He earned his Master of Science degree from the Graduate School of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan, in 1999. Then, in 2008, he completed a doctoral program at the Faculty of Biology, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. Since 1993, he has been a teaching staff at the Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Diponegoro University. He teaches Diving Expertise, Koralogy, and Marine Resources Conservation courses in undergraduate and postgraduate programs. He has taught at the Fisheries Study Program of Gadjah Mada University for fisheries resource conservation courses since 2009. The author actively participated in Reef Check Indonesia (1997—2019) and has been a member of the Indonesian Coral Reef Study Group since 1995. The author is involved in Reef Health Monitoring activities in South Lampung, Sikka (NTT), and Karimunjawa, Central Java (COREMAP-CTI, 2016—2021). The author is also a competency assessor at RCO-BRIN Professional Certification Institution. Currently, the author is listed as Deputy of Scientific Diving at the Association of Diving School International (ADSI) Indonesia and is the coach of the Marine Diving Club (MDC), Diponegoro University. The author can be reached by email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Beginer Subhan. He has been a lecturer at the Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, since 2005. This coral reef researcher from IPB University completed his doctoral program at the Marine Science Study Program, IPB University. He has been the founder and Head of the Scientific Diving Laboratory at IPB until now. In addition to being a teacher, the author also has several additional competencies, including a diving instructor, and a competency assessor for the Coral Reef and Related Ecosystem Condition Assessor Competency Certification (RCO-BRIN Professional Certification Institution) and a Coral Finder Trainer instructor. The research activities include marine ecology, coral reef restoration, marine genetics (barcoding, population genetics, and eDNA), and bioprospection of marine organisms. The author has two patents related to the coral reef restoration method. The author can be reached by email:
Muhammad Hafizt, S.Si., M.Sc. He is one of the researchers at the Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency. Undergraduate and master’s education was obtained from the Faculty of Geography, Gadjah Mada University, in the Cartography and Remote Sensing Study Program in 2013 and 2015. Subsequently, he joined LIPI in 2015 and currently serves as Head of the Spatial Ecology Research Group at the Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency. The author can be reached by email: email@example.com
Raden Sutiadi, S.Kom. He is an engineer at the Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency, with expertise in the IT field. He joined the Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Program (COREMAP) project from phase I in 2004 to COREMAP phase III (COREMAP-CTI) in 2022. The author often involves coastal ecosystem monitoring activities in several COREMAP locations. In addition, the authors also developed several platforms for information systems and coral reef databases. In 2006, the author became one of the management of the Loligo Diving Club at P2O-LIPI and participated in teaching diving certification activities for CPNS at the Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency. From 2021—2022, the author was involved in safeguard activities. He is tasked with monitoring the team conducting coral reef ecosystem monitoring activities. He is also one of the oceanographic teams for the initial survey of determining the location of coral reef planting in the International Coral Reef Garden activity in Bali. The author can be reached by email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Allen GR, Erdmann MV. (2011). Keragaman Ikan Karang di Perairan Bali, Indonesia, P. 17–71. Dalam Mustika PL, Ratha IMJ, Purwanto S (Eds): Kajian Cepat Kondisi Kelautan Provinsi Bali 2011. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 64. Dinas Perikanan dan Kelautan Provinsi Bali, Balai Riset dan Observasi Kelautan Bali, Universitas Warmadewa, Conservation International Indonesia, Denpasar.
Bohnsack JA, Bannerot SP. (1986). A Stationary Visual Census Technique for Quantitatively Assessing Community Structure of Coral Reef Fishes. NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, USA.
Bortone SA, Hastings RW, Oglesby JL. (1986). Quantification of Reef Fish Assemblages: A Comparison of Several in Situ Methods. Northeast Gulf Sci 8:1–22.
Brock VE (1954) A Preliminary Report on a Method of Estimating Reef Fish Populations. Journal of Wildlife Management, 18:297–308.
Davis T, Harasti D, Smith SDA. (2014). Compensating for Length Biases in Underwater Visual Census of Fishes Using Stereo Video Measurements. Marine and Freshwater Research. Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1071/MF14076
English SA, Wilkinson CR, Baker VJ. (1997). Visual Census of Reef Fish: Long-Term Monitoring of the Great Barrier Reef. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville.
Haddock, Steven, H, D. And Heine, John, H. (2005). Scientific Blue-Water Diving. California Sea Grant College Program. California.
Harvey E, Fletcher D, Shortis M, Kendrick G. (2004). A Comparison of Underwater Visual Distance Estimates Made by SCUBA Divers and a Stereo-Video System: Implications for Underwater Visual Census of Reef Fish Abundance. Mar Freshwat Res 55:573–580.
Howell, R. S., Criscitelli, T., Woods, J. S., Gillette, B. M., & Gorenstein, S. (2018). Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Indications, Contraindications, and Use at a Tertiary Care Center: 1.3 Www.Aornjournal.Org/Content/Cme. AORN Journal, 107(4), 442–453. Https://Doi.Org/10.1002/Aorn.12097.
Jones R, Thompson M. (1978). Comparison of Florida Reef Fish Assemblages Using a Rapid Visual Technique. Bulletin of Marine Science, 28:159–172.
Jonker MJ, Bray PE, Johns KA, Osborne KO. (2020). Surveys of Benthic Reef Communities Using Underwater Digital Photography and Counts of Juvenile Corals. Long Term Monitoring of the Great Barrier Reef - Standard Operational Procedure Number 10, 2nd Ed. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia. 36 Pp. Https://Doi.Org/10.25845/Jjzj-0v14.
Madduppa, H.H., Subhan, B., Suparyani, E., Siregar, A.M., Arafat, D., Tarigan, S.A., Alimuddin, D.K., Rahmawati, F. & Bramandito, A. (2013). Dynamics of Fish Diversity Across an Environmental Gradient in the Seribu Islands Reefs off Jakarta. Biodiversitas, 14(1), Pp.17-24.
Naval Sea Systems Command. (2016). U.S. Navy Diving Manual. Revision 7. Publication SS521-AG-PRO-010. Washington DC.
Obura, D. and G. Grimsditch. (2009). Resilience Assessment of Coral Reefs : Rapid Assessment Protocol for Coral Reefs, Focusing on Coral Bleaching and Thermal Stress. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland. 70 Pp.
Pais MP, Cabral HN. (2018). Effect of Underwater Visual Survey Methodology on Bias and Precision of Fish Counts: A Simulation Approach. Peerj, 6: 1–19.
Pardo, A. (2014). A Scuba Diving Direct Sediment Sampling Methodology on Benthic Transects in Glacial Lakes: Procedure Description, Safety Measures, and Tests Results. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21, 12457–12471. Https://Doi.Org/10.1007/S11356-014-3011-8.
R. Wartenberg & A. J. Booth. 2014. Video Transects are the Most Appropriate Underwater Visual Census Method for Surveying High-Latitude Coral Reef Fishes in The Southwestern Indian Ocean. Mar Biodiv. DOI 10.1007/S12526-014-0262-Z
SKKNI Penyelaman Ilmiah Biologi Laut. Kemenaker. (2019).
Subhan B., Khair M, Madduppa H, Nurjaya IW, Ardiwijaya RL, Prabuning D, Anggoro AW, Arafat D. (2015). Terumbu Karang Tulamben. Bogor, IPB Press 170 Pp.
Suharsono dan Sumadhiharga OK. (2014). Panduan Monitoring Kesehatan Terumbu Karang: Terumbu Karang, Ikan Karang, Megabenthos dan Penulisan Laporan. Pusat Penelitian Oseanografi LIPI, Jakarta
Tessier A., Pastor J., Francour P., Saragoni G., Crec’hriou R., & Lenfant P. (2013). Video Transects as a Complement to Underwater Visual Census to Study Reserve Effect on Fish Assemblages. Aquatic Biology. Vol. 18: 229–241, 2013. DOI 10.3354/Ab00506.
Van Liew, H. D., & Flynn, E. T. (2005). Direct Ascent From Air and N2-O2 Saturation Dives in Humans: DCS Risk and Evidence of a Threshold. Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine : Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc, 32(6), 409–419.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.