Indonesia's Energy Transition Preparedness Framework Towards 2045


Agus Kiswantono (ed)
Universitas Bhayangkara
Riostantieka Mayandari Shoedarto (ed)
Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional


energy, transition, renewable, sustainable, wind, solar, participation, ocean, OTEC, assessment, battery


Energy transition is a shift in the system of energy production and consumption, from fossil-based materials (oil, natural gas, coal) to renewable energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar). Indonesia’s national energy transition roadmap has set the vision towards a cleaner and more sustainable energy future in 2045. The ultimate goal is to reach net zero emission, the state in which emissions caused by human activities are balanced by carbon dioxide removal over a certain period of time. With this vision, Indonesia stands as a beacon of promise in the global pursuit of green energy solutions, navigating the path towards a more sustainable and resilient future.

Indonesia's Energy Transition Preparedness Framework Towards 2045 unveils a comprehensive framework that encapsulates Indonesia’s energy transition readiness and elaborates the steps needed to strengthen the efforts. This book represents a significant milestone in Indonesia’s commitment to foster a transition towards renewable energy. From the lush landscapes of Sumatra to the vibrant cities of Java, Indonesia’s rich diversity is mirrored in its approach to energy transition—a transformative journey that encompasses not only technological advancements, but also socioeconomic considerations, policy dynamics, and the empowerment of its people.

This book will be useful for the general public to learn and understand the framework of energy transition and supplies, so that it will eventually accelerate clean energy momentum in Indonesia.



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Author Biographies

Agus Kiswantono, Universitas Bhayangkara

He is a lecturer at Bhayangkara University Surabaya, Indonesia. He actively teaches in the field of energy and electricity, such as courses in measuring electrical quantities, high voltage engineering, electrical and electronic circuits, digital electronics, and others. He is also active in FORTEI, a communication forum for Indonesian Electrical Engineering Higher Education. His attention to the field of energy and electricity has produced many scientific publications, such as ‘Design of Atmega2560 Charge Controller Battery Using Static Bicycle’, ‘Stability Control of Frequency and Voltage in Wind Power Plant using Complementary Load with Pid Control, Pwm and Thingspeak Monitor’, ‘Design of Single Phase Motor Current, Voltage, Over Temperature Protection System and Temperature Timing in Water Heater’, ‘Prototype Monitoring Electricity System 220v of Wind Power Plant (PLTB) based on the Internet of Things’, ‘Profile of Automation of Electricity Distribution System Bhayangkara University Surabaya’, and ‘Transmission Simulation at PJB Power Plant using ETAP 16.0’. He also gives lectures at various entrepreneurial, social, and religious events. E-mail contact:

Riostantieka Mayandari Shoedarto, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional

She is a researcher at Research Center for Geological Resources, the National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN). She obtained a bachelor’s degree in Meteorology Science from the Faculty of Earth Science and Technology at the Institute Technology of Bandung, and a master’s degree from the Geothermal Master Program, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering at the Institute Technology of Bandung. Then, she finished Ph.D study in the Department of Urban Management, Graduate School of Engineering at Kyoto University, Japan. She has experiences as Postdoctoral Researcher at Kyoto University (March 2020–December 2021), Research Assistant at Kyoto University (March 2019–March 2020), Teaching Assistant at Kyoto University (March 2019–August 2019), Geothermal Analyst at the Institute Technology of Bandung (December 2013–August 2014), and Teaching Assistant at the Institute Technology of Bandung (September 2012–August 2013). She is also active as a Head of Geothermal and Geomedical Research Unit. She has expertise in the fields of renewable energy, geothermal exploration, hydrogeochemistry, and geobiology. Her interest in the energy sector has resulted in many publications, such as ‘Specifying Recharge Zones and Mechanisms of the Transitional Geothermal Field through Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Analyses with Consideration of Water-rock Interaction’, and ‘Pre Feasibility Study for Agricultural Drying Projects In Buru Island, Maluku’.

Af’ida Khofsoh

She works in the field of chemical engineering and industrial chemistry. She is an alumnus of Brawijaya University (UB) Malang, graduating in 2017, and completes her master’s degree from the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Monash University, Australia. The author is a green energy activist and observer in the field of energy and environment. The author also actively publishes with stakeholders, focusing on the use of radiation energy (UV radiation, gamma rays, electron beam) which has an impact on the environment from agricultural wastewater.

Ariyana Dwiputra Nugraha

He completed his master’s degree in material and metallurgy engineering at the University of Indonesia in 2016. He joined the PLN Research Institute (a state-owned electricity company in Indonesia) in 2009 as a Mechanical Engineer in the Failure Analysis and Testing Laboratory Department. In 2014, He started his career as a researcher. Starting in 2020, he started to focus and get involved in renewable energy development, especially ocean current energy. Email:

Benita Dian Purnamasari, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional

She is an early career researcher in the Research Centre for Sustainable Production and Life Cycle Assessment, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN). She obtained her bachelor’s degree in Industrial Engineering from Universitas Indonesia and Master of Business Administration from School of Business and Management, Bandung Institute of Technology. Currently, her research interests are related to carbon pricing, carbon tax, and carbon trading. Email:

Dedi Rustandi, Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (Bappenas)

Dedi Rustandi studied bachelor’s degree in Geology at Padjadjaran University. He worked for several years as a professional geologist before joining the National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas). The development planning works he carries out cover the fields from geology and mining, to energy efficiency and renewable energy development. Dedi continued his postgraduate education at the University of Auckland (New Zealand) with a Master of Energy degree. His current position at Bappenas is senior planner (perencana madya). Dedi wrote a number of papers for several international conferences and journals, especially on energy and development planning issues. He can be contacted at

Beny Harjadi, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional

Born in Solo or Surakarta Hadiningrat in 1961 on March 17, he obtained his bachelor’s degree in Soil Sciences from Faculty of Agriculture IPB in 1987, and master’s degree in Remote Sensing from École Nationale du Génie Rural, des Eaux et des Forêst (ENGREF), Faculty of Forestry, Montpellier, France in 1996. He began his career as a staff at Watershed Management Technology Center (BTPDAS) which had working areas throughout Indonesia, and at that time it was still under the Director General of Land Reforestation and Land Conservation (RLKT), Ministry of Forestry. His task was accompanying experts from New Zealand as a counterpart from 1990 to 1993. While working with foreign experts, survey and training activities were carried out by inviting Forest Ecosystem Control (PEH) technician staff from the BPDAS office which was previously still called the RLKT Sub Center. He is currently a Principal Researcher in Landslide Mitigation at the Geological Disaster Research Center based at the National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN) in Cisitu, Bandung

Erwandi, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional

Erwandi received a bachelor’s degree in Naval Architecture from Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology Surabaya, Indonesia in 1990. He finished a Master of Engineering degree in Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering from the Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University Japan in 1999 and a Ph.D degree in Global Architecture, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University in 2002. He is currently working as a senior researcher at the Research Center for Hydrodynamics Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Indonesia. His areas of interest include ship hydrodynamics, numerical hydrodynamics, ocean renewable energy converter, and the development of measurement techniques in the hydrodynamics laboratory in Surabaya. His recent research topic is the development of a marine current turbine converter that suitable for Indonesian water. He can be reached at:

Hanan Nugroho, Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (Bappenas)

He is a Chief Planner (Perencana Ahli Utama) with the National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas) of Indonesia. He has held several in-house positions, including Head of Electricity Development and Head of Oil & Gas Division. Graduated from Institut Teknologi Bandung, he took post-graduate studies in Energy and Mining Economics and Policies at several universities (Michigan Tech, Institut Francais du Petrole, and Kyoto Daigaku) in addition to attend various professional training in these fields. He occasionally teaches energy economics, planning and policy and serves as a resources person on Indonesia’s energy development. He has written several papers for various conferences related to “Energy, Environment, Economy”, in addition to a number of reports, journal papers, popular articles, and books, including “A Mosaic of Indonesian Energy Policy” (2011), “Thoughts on Indonesian Natural Gas Industry Development” (2022), and “Toward Better Energy Policies for Indonesia” (2023). He worked in joint-research with several energy and sustainable development think tanks globally and was invited as a Senior Research Fellow by Harvard Kennedy School (2012–2013). He can be contacted at

Hasti Afianti, Universitas Bhayangkara

She was born in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, in 1974. She obtained bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees in Electrical Engineering from Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) in 1998, 2005, and 2021. From 2020, she has been working as a lecturer at Bhayangkara University Surabaya. Her interest in renewable energy started when she completed her undergraduate and doctoral degrees. She also attended the 9th ASEAN School of Renewable Energy held by UNESCO in collaboration with National University of Malaysia (UKM) in 2016. Her research includes modeling and simulation of electric power systems which focus on microgrid systems, power quality, and power electronics.

Indri Hapsari, Universitas Surabaya

Indri Hapsari was born in Bogor. She completed her undergraduate and master’s education in the field of Industrial Engineering at the Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology in Surabaya. Her doctoral studies in the same field were accomplished at the Universitas Indonesia, focusing on the design of tourist routes. Since 2002, Indri has been a part of the Universitas Surabaya’s Industrial Engineering faculty, actively participating in the implementation of tridharma perguruan tinggi. Her academic contributions include scholarly articles, textbooks, and travel literature. As a writer, she achieved recognition by winning the first prize in the Femina magazine short story writing competition in 2016.

Inggit Kresna Maharsih, Universitas Brawijaya

Inggit Kresna Maharsih has been a lecturer at Brawijaya University (UB), Malang since 2021, teaching in the Bioprocess Technology Study Program. Previously, she also taught at the Kalimantan Institute of Technology (ITEKA) from 2018 to 2020. A graduate of Chemical Engineering, UB and Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan, she is also active in the field of bioprocess studies and is an environmental observer, which makes her plays an active role in researching and publishing research results in related fields.

Kirstie Imelda Majesty, Universitas Indonesia

She is a researcher under the Environmental Economics for Sustainable Development Research Cluster at the School of Environmental Science, Universitas Indonesia. She obtained her master’s degree in Environmental Science in 2019. Currently, her research interests are related to environmental sustainability & climate change, which includes GHG accounting, emission reduction, and nature-based solutions. 

Muhammad Hamzah Solim, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional

He has been a researcher at the Radiation Process Research and Technology Center, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN) since 2020. Bachelor’s and master’s degree was completed at Medan State University and Airlangga University, Surabaya. Prior to his career as a researcher, he conducted studies on renewable energy such as biotenol which comes from orange peel waste. Then, he became a Teacher and Supervisor of Science and Biology Olympiads for MTs and MA participants in the Mojokerto region from 2015–2020. From 2021­2022, he became an ASN researcher who applies nuclear technology (radiation) in the agricultural sector at the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). After the research organization became the National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), the researcher joined the Plant Radiation Mutagenesis Research Group, Center for Radiation Process Research and Technology (PRTPR), Nuclear Energy Research Organization (ORTN) in 2022. Email:

Navik Puryantini, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional

Navik Puryantini is currently working as a researcher at Research Center for Hydrodynamics Technology, Organizational Research for Energy and Manufacture, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN). She finished her Master of Accounting from Airlangga University in 2017 with a scholarship from state accountability revitalization project Indonesia’s National Government Internal Auditor (STAR BPKP). Her research interests are in ocean energy conversion technology, socio-economy and policy of ocean energy. Email :

Nur Laila Widyastuti, Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (Bappenas)

Nur Laila Widyastuti

Nur Laila Widyastuti is a senior planner (perencana madya) at the Directorate of Energy and Mineral Resources, National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas). Laila graduated with degrees in Informatics Engineering from Institut Teknologi Sepuluh November and English Literature from Airlangga University. She also got her Master's in Economics from University of Indonesia. At Bappenas, Laila's development planning works include oil and gas, energy data administration, and financing of energy development projects. She has also conducted a number of research on energy and the economy. Some of the articles she has written include “Premium, Pertalite or Pertamax: An Empirical Study of A-A Phenomenon on Indonesia” (2019), and “Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility to Export in ASEAN-5 Countries” (2016). Laila can be contacted at


Rasgianti completed her bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering at Andalas University in 2007. She joined the PLN Research Institute (a state-owned electricity company in Indonesia) in 2011 as a Civil Engineer in the Environmental and Civil Engineering laboratory department. In 2015, she started her career as a researcher. Furthermore, starting in 2020, she is also interested and involved in renewable energy, especially ocean current energy. Email:

Ristiyanto Adiputra, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional

Ristiyanto Adiputra graduated in Naval Architecture from Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya, Indonesia, in 2014. He then obtained his Master of Engineering degree in 2017 and his Doctor of Engineering degree in 2019 from the Department of Maritime Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan. He started his career as an assistant professor at the Ocean Energy Resources Laboratory of Kyushu University from 2019 to 2021. Currently, he is a researcher at the Research Center for Hydrodynamics Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Indonesia. His research interests cover the reliability and hydrodynamics of marine structures, the Internal Flow Effects (IFE) of marine piping systems, and ocean energy utilization. He recently devoted himself to the development and implementation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) in Indonesia. Email:

Takeshi Yasunaga, Institute of Ocean Energy, Saga University

Takeshi Yasunaga is currently working on Institute of Ocean Energy, Saga University (IOES), Japan as Associate Professor. He got PhD at Saga University in 2008. He worked at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. for the design and development of high-pressure pumps and energy recovery devises on large-scale reverse osmosis membrane seawater desalination plants. He was the project leader of the research and development of ocean energy devises with a focus on wave power generation. Since 2015, he worked for the research on ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), organic Rankine cycles (ORC), and plate type heat exchanger at IOES. He is a board member of deep ocean water applications society Japan. E-mail:


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December 29, 2023

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